G. Bellini, A. Ianni, L. Ludhova, F. Mantovani, W.G. McDonough
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Volume 73, Nov. 2013, Pages 1-34[DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppnp.2013.07.001]
We review a new interdisciplinary field between Geology and Physics: the study of the Earth’s geo-neutrino flux. We describe competing models for the composition of the Earth, present geological insights into the make up of the continental and oceanic crust, those parts of the Earth that concentrate Th and U, the heat producing elements, and provide details of the regional settings in the continents and oceans where operating and planned detectors are sited. Details are presented for the only two operating detectors that are capable of measuring the Earth’s geo-neutrino flux: Borexino and KamLAND; results achieved to date are presented, along with their impacts on geophysical and geochemical models of the Earth. Finally, future planned experiments are highlighted.